Aquaponics: A New Entrepreneur for a Fishery Graduate Student —Adita Sharma

What is Aquaponics ?

Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish production in available water) and hydroponics (growing of plants without soil by using inert medium). It allows you to produce fish and plants in the one system with a large reduction in water use. Aquaponics is the symbiotic production of vegetables and fish. Fish eat food and release metabolites into the water derived from the food. These metabolites are further metabolized by bacteria and the products of this metabolism are pumped into a plant grow bed, where they are taken-up by plants for nourish­ment. Aquaponics is suitable for environments with limited land and water, because it produces about three to six times the vegetables and uses about 1% of the fresh­water used by traditional aquaculture.

Plants need to be fertilized in order to grow more. But, when plants are put in water, there is no soil, and therefore, there is nothing to be fertilized. However, if we put fish in that same water where the plants are, we will be able to make the water dirtier than usual. This may seem confusing right now, but it is not. Namely, that so called ‘dirt’ is actually the toxic by-product that fish leave behind. With special equipment, that water is transferred and cleaned and then returned back to the fish.

Simple aquponic unit

 

Applicability of Aquaponics

Aquaponics combines two of the most productive systems in their respective fields. Recirculating aquacul­ture systems and hydroponics have experienced wide­spread expansion in the world not only for their higher yields, but also for their better use of land and water, simpler methods of pollution control, improved manage­ment of productive factors, their higher quality of pro­ducts and greater food safety. However, aquaponics can be overly complicated and expensive, and requires consis­tent access to some inputs.

Major Benefits of Aquaponic System

0 Sustainability and intensive food production system. • Two agriculture products are produced from one nitrogen source.

0 Extremely water efficient.

0 Does not require soil.

0 Does not use fertilizers or chemical pesticides.

0 Higher control on production leading to lower losses. 0 Daily tasks, harvesting and planning are labour saving and therefore can include all genders and ages.

0 Economical production of either family food pro­duction or cash crops in many locations.

0 Construction materials and information base are widely available.

0 Promoting fuel efficient and environment friendly fishing practice.

Maintenance of Fish Health and Feeding Status

Water is pumped from the fish tanks into the raceway and returns to the fish tank via a standpipe and bulkhead. Fish feeding should start out slowly and increase over two weeks to the level of about 42 g of feed per day. This is a rough estimate, as the fish determine how much they want to eat. The slow increase should allow for the growth of bacteria, which are recruited from the environment to detoxify the water. Fish are fed twice daily, once in the mid-morning when water temperatures begin to rise and once in the evening. The best way to determine feeding amounts is to feed fish the prede­termined amount and then ten minutes after feeding count the number of particles remaining. If 5-10% of the feed remains after 10 minutes, the meal size should be kept the same; if more than 10% is left over, the meal size should be decreased; if less than 5% is left over, the meal size should be increased.

 

‘ X

wmr

/ill!I;:.\ yr

Grow tray
27.78 crore

Workers registered till March 2015

Total 9.80 cr
YEAR BY YEAR
MOST ACTIVE WORKERS (in lakh)

State Active Women Reg’d Women 50            275          111

TN 90 67 130 85
MP 88 39 245 113
UP 87 24 234 57
Rajasthan 78 47 245 118
Andhra 76 40 208 101

 

How can We Start Our Own Aquaponic Unit?

We can use simple wooden boxes. Grow-bed units are shallow wooden boxes with a piece of plywood for a bottom,

two 2″x 4″ side pieces and two 2″ x 4″:end pieces. These grow- beds are quick and inexpensive to cons­truct. Each bed pro­duces 48 heads of leafy greens, such as lettuce, some vege­tables, such as mustard cabbage; require 5 weeks to grow to a pound.

To construct the box, screws are placed through the bottom once every approx. 41 cm. 2×8 stainless steel screws or 3 x 10 stainless steel screws are used. Typical raceways consisting of 8 pieces Boxes are construc- of plywood connected end to end.                                                                  ted upside down.

Many trays are attached to each other. Usually 8 pieces of plywood form a race-way. The number 8 is used because rolls of plastic are usually about 100 feet long. The greatest challenge is to ensure that all of the trays are level. They need to be level or fish water will puddle somewhere in the tray. Raceways are supported by double hollow tiles.

Plants sit in 2″ net pots supported by the white poly­styrene covers.

Grow-beds are filled with enough water to reach the bottom of the net pots, and lettuce plant roots Gravel filled raceway with plants grow down into growing in the gravel the water to take up nutrients. It is noted that this leaves about 5 cm of air space between the raft and the surface of the water, approximating well-aerated tilled soil.

India today is the second largest fish producing nation in the World. India is also a major producer of fish through aquaculture and ranks second in the World after China. Infact, fish sector contributes about 0-92% to the overall Gross Value Added (GVA) and 5-58% of the Agricultural GVA at current prices for the year 2013-14. Inland fisheries presently has a share of 64-09% in total fish production (9-58 million tonnes-MT in 2013-14), while marine fisheries share is 35-90%. Overall, this Aquaponics technique/system will be suitable for environment with limited land water in the country a dire need in 21st Century. This Aquaponics technique will be useful to develop post harvest technologies for students by the National Institute of Fisheries Post Harvest Technology and Training (NIFPHATT, Gol) Vishakhapatnam (A.P.) renamed in 2008, Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET), Kochi (Kerala) est. in 1963 etc.

‘World Fisheries Day’ was observed first time in India on November 21, 2014 during International Trade Fare, New Delhi so as to enhance fish production by National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) and implement ‘Blue Revolution’ Inland Fisheries.


Conclusion

Aquaponics is an integrated approach to efficient and sustainable intensification of agriculture that meets the needs of water scarcity initiatives. Globally, improved agricultural practices are needed to alleviate rural poverty and enhance food security. Aquaponics is residuefree and avoids the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. It is a labour-saving technique and can be inclusive of many gender and age categories. In the face of population growth, climate change and dwindling supplies of water and arable land worldwide, developing efficient and integrated agriculture techniques will support economic development.            p.oarpan

FACT SHEET

NREGA @10: Rising wages,
dwindling workforce

Govt’s flagship employment scheme completed 10 years on February 2,2016

Rs. 3,13,844.55 crore

TOTAL AMOUNT SPENT IN 10 YEARS, 71% OF IT ON WAGES,

AND REST ON ADMINISTRATIVE AND OTHER EXPENSES

1,980.01 crore

Man-days of work created in 10 years

ACTIVE WORKERS

(Worked at least once in the last two years)

Others 5.88 cr

tl –

r9%Land development _ 5% Other 12% Land development 4% Other r works
works
\ 24% Rural 15%

Renovation

I
WHAT THEY DID

 

WHERE THE Rs. 3 lakh cr WENT

 

_ 9% Drought proofing

 

 

-16% Water conservation

………. ..■tPMjMwt

What

2015-16* 2014-15 2013-14 2012-13
Wage/day/person 151.96 143.91 132.7 121.41
Total expenditure 34,360 cr 36,025 cr 38,553 cr 39,778 cr
1 WORK FELL
Man-days of work 160 166 220 230
Households that worked 3.99 cr 4.14 cr 4.79 cr 4.99 cr
Individuals that worked 5.81 cr 6.22 cr 7.39 cr 7.97 cr
THE 100 DAYS/YEAR BENCHMARK
Households got 100 days (in lakh) 20.85 24.93 46.59 51.73
Average days per household 40.13 40.17 45.97 46.2
1 *2015-16 figures until date; tables cover two UPA years, two NDA years
THE STATES (UTs excluded from tables)

 

 

 

WORKS COMPLETED

TOP 5                           BOTTOM 5

Haryana 91% Arunachal 7%
Mizoram 85% Manipur 40%
Tripura 84% Odisha 53%
Himachal 82% Bengal 54%
MP 82% Maharashtra 58%

 

 

UN Paris Climate Summit 2015: COP 21 —Amresh Chandra

The Paris Agreement marks the latest step in the evolution of the UN climate change regime, which origi­nated in 1992 with the adoption of the Framework Convention. The out­come of the 21st session of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties, or COP 21 which was held from November 30-December 11, 2015, has been hailed almost univer­sally by politicians and the press as a triumph of international collaboration that will pull mankind back from the brink of ecological disaster.

The UNFCCC established a long­term objective, general principles, common and differentiated commit­ments, and a basic governance structure, including an annual COP. In the years since, the regime has evolved in different directions. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol took a more ‘top-down’ but highly differentia­ted approach, establishing negotia­ted, binding emissions targets for developed countries, and no new commitments for developing coun­tries. Because the United States did not join, and some countries that did set no targets beyond 2012, the protocol now covers less than 15 per cent of global emissions.

With the 2009 Copenhagen Accord and 2010 Cancun Agree­ments, parties established a parallel ‘bottom-up’ framework, with coun­tries undertaking national pledges for 2020 that represent political rather than legal commitments. This approach attracted much wider parti­cipation, including, for the first time, specific mitigation pledges by deve­loping countries. However, coun­tries’ pledges fell far short of the reductions needed to meet the goal set in Copenhagen and Cancun of keeping average warming below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The negotiations towards a Paris agreement were launched with the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action adopted at COP 17 in 2011.

The Durban Platform called for “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties/’ to apply from 2020, but provided no further substantive guidance. COP 19 in Warsaw called on parties to submit “intended nationally determined contributions” (INDCs) well before the Paris con­ference, signalling an important bottom-up feature of the emerging agreement. Heading into Paris, more than 190 countries producing more than 90 per cent of global emissions had submitted INDCs, a much broader response than many had anticipated.

Progress at the Global Agree­ment : A Brief Look

In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and forged the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations. Those years of argument produced, in 1997, the Kyoto protocol. That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging econo­mies, were given no targets.

A1 Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US-then the world’s biggest emitter-on the outside, that was not going to happen.

So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near­halt. But in late 2004, Russia decided to pass the treaty – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its appli­cation for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the Euro­pean Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

But in true sense it was not a global agreement. The US, under George W. Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major deve­loping economies—especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter—to take on limits to their emissions. What followed was, agreed at Bali in 2007 after much drama, an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

Copenhagen Conference of 2009

In the Copenhagen conference of 2009 the entire world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed for the first time to limits on their green-house gas emis­sions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal. The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions com­pared with ‘business as usual’. But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. What didn’t happen was a fully articulated and legally binding treaty.

The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding

What is Climate Change ?

The planet’s climate has constantly been changing over geological time. The global average temperature today is about 15°C, though geological evidence suggests it has been much higher and lower in the past.

However, the current period of warming is occur­ring more rapidly than many past events. Scientists are concerned that the natural fluctua­tion, or variability, is being overtaken by a rapid human-

induced warming that has serious implications for the stability of the planet’s climate.

What is the ‘Greenhouse Effect’ ?

The greenhouse effect refers to the way the Earth’s atmosphere traps some of the energy from the Sun. Solar energy radiating back out to space from the Earth’s surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases and re-emitted in all directions.

The energy that radiates back down to the planet heats both the lower atmos­phere and the surface. Without this effect, the Earth would be about 30°C colder, making our planet hostile to life.

What is the Evidence for Warming ?

Temperature records going back to the late 19th Century show that the average temperature of the Earth’s surface has increased by about 0-8°C (1-4°F) in the last 100 years. About 0-6°C (1-0“F) of this warming occurred in the last three decades.

Satellite data shows an average increase in global sea levels of some 3mm per year in recent decades. A large proportion of the change in sea level is accounted for by the thermal expansion of seawater. As seawater warms up, the molecules become less densely packed, causing an increase in the volume of the ocean.

But the melting of mountain glaciers and the retreat of polar ice sheets are also important contributors. Most glaciers in temperate regions of the world and along the Antarctic Peninsula are in retreat. Since 1979, satellite records show a dramatic decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, at an annual rate of 4% per decade. In 2012, the ice extent reached a record minimum that was 50% lower than the 1979-2000 average.

The Greenland Ice Sheet has experienced record melting in recent years; if the entire 2.8 million cu km sheet were to melt, it would raise sea levels by 6m. Satellite data shows the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is also losing mass and a recent study indicated that East Antarctica, which had displayed no clear warming or cooling trend, may also have started to lose mass in the last few years. But scientists are not expecting dramatic changes. In some places, mass may actually increase as warming temperatures drive the production of more snows.

The effects of a changing climate can also be seen in vegetation and land animals. These include earlier-flowering and fruiting times for plants and changes in the territories (or ranges) occupied by animals.

Greenhouse gas emissions by type
Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (deforestation decay of biomass, etc.)
Methane — 14%
Nitrous oxide — 8%
Carbon dioxide (other) || 3%
Fluorinated gases

Source: IPCC

|l%

 

UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And none of the coun­tries that failed to meet their com­mitments under Kyoto has been sanctioned.

The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last- minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year in the form of the Cancun agree­ments. For this reason, the Copen­hagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups. But the
targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

Global Situation Leading to Paris Summit

International community already knows wl)at the biggest emitters have committed to. The EU will cut its emissions by 40%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The US will cut its emissions by 26% to 28%, com­pared with 2005 levels, by 2025. China will agree that its emissions will peak by 2030. Nations respon­
sible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets—known in the UN jargon as Indented Nationally Deter­mined Contributions or INDCs. These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary : in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing coun­tries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to ‘business as usual’, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or pre­serve forests.

Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that these pledges are enough to hold the world to about 2-7°C or 3°C of warming. That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agree­ment would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards. Another, and complementary approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging ‘non-state actors’ such as cities, local govern­ments and businesses to do more.

The other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their green­house gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change. This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, rich countries agreed to supply $ 30 billion ($ 20 billion) of ‘fast-start’ financial assis­tance to the poor nations, and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $ 100 bn a year would be provided.

PD/April/2016/108
‘Failure isn’t fatal, but failure to change might be’

As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms : the OECD issued a report in October 2015 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and a report by the World Resources Institute

 

showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other develop­ment banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments haye already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector. An agree­ment on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

The Paris Agreement

Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reached a landmark agreement on December 12, 2015 in Paris, charting a fundamentally new course in the two-decade-old global climate effort.

Culminating a four-year nego­tiating round, the new treaty ends the strict differentiation between deve­loped and developing countries that characterized earlier efforts, replacing it with a common framework that commits all countries to put forward their best efforts and to strengthen them in the years ahead. This includes, for the first time, require­ments that all parties report regularly on their emissions and implemen­tation efforts, and undergo inter­national review.

The agreement and a companion decision by parties were the key outcomes of the conference, known as the 21st session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties, or COP 21. Together, the Paris Agreement and the accompanying COP decision :

  • Reaffirm the goal of limiting global temperature increase well below 2 degrees Celsius, while urging efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees;
  • Establish binding commitments by all parties to make ‘nationally..^

PD/April/2016/109
determined contributions’ (NDCs), and to pursue domestic measures aimed at achieving them;

9 Commit all countries to report regularly on their emissions and “progress made in implementing and achieving” their NDCs, and to undergo international review; 9 Commit all countries to submit new NDCs every five years, with the clear expectation that they will ‘represent a progression’ beyond previous ones;

9 Reaffirm the binding obligations of developed countries under the UNFCCC to support the efforts of developing countries, while for the first time encouraging voluntary contributions by deve­loping countries too;

9 Extend the current goal of mobilizing $ 100 billion a year in support by 2020 through 2025, with a new, higher goal to be set for the period after 2025;

9 Extend a mechanism to address Toss and damage’ resulting from climate change, which explicitly will not “involve or provide a basis for any liability or com­pensation;”

9 Require parties engaging in international emissions trading to avoid ‘double counting’; and 9 Call for a new mechanism, similar to the Clean Develop­ment Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, enabling emis­sion reductions in one country to be counted toward another country’s NDC.

Next Steps

The Paris Agreement will be open for signature on April 22, 2016. In order to become a party to the agreement, a country must then express its consent to be bound through a formal process of ratifica­tion, acceptance, approval or acces­sion (different terms for essentially the same thing). Each country has its own domestic procedures for decid­ing whether to join an international agreement.

The agreement establishes a ‘double trigger’ for entry-into-force : it requires approval by at least 55 countries accounting for at least 55 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. If states ratify quickly,
these conditions could be satisfied pre-2020, allowing the COP to begin meeting as the ‘meeting of the Parties’ to the Paris Agreement. In the meantime, pending the agreement’s entry into force, a new Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agree­ment will begin meeting to consider issues requiring further rules or guidance. This new Ad Hoc Working Group will meet for the first time when the UNFCCC subsidiary bodies convene in Bonn, Germany, on May 16-26, 2016. COP 22 is set for November 7-18, 2016, in Marrakech, Morocco.

A Critical Assessment of the Treaty

Any examination of the agree­ment, however, makes clear that it is entirely without substance. The ‘land­mark’ pact consists of nothing more than a general promise that govern­ments will make an effort to keep any “increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels,” and will seek to achieve “global peaking of green­house gas emissions as soon as possible.” There are no specific measures mandated for countries that ratify the deal besides a general appeal to be ‘ambitious’ and pursue policies “with the view to achieving the purpose of this Agreement.” There are no specific targets and no enforcement mechanisms, meaning countries that sign the treaty can do whatever they want.

Leading climate scientist James Hansen characterized the deal a ‘fraud’ and a ‘fake’, declaring, “It’s just worthless words. There is no action, just promises.”

“Everything you want is on the other side of fear.”

Even if, by some miracle, all of the signatories did their part to achieve the stated goal, global tem­peratures would still rise by some 2 degrees by the end of the century which is to experts ‘highly dange­rous’. It would produce a rise in sea levels by several meters, a circum­stance that would inundate many of the world’s major metropolises and lead to “hundreds of millionsjs] of climate refugees.” Amid the efflu­vium of official praise for the climate pact, that of French President Francois Hollande stood out as the most ludicrous.

Solved Paper NABARD ASSISTANT MANAGER (GRADE A & B) EXAMINATION, 2015 (Held on 26-10-2014) Reasoning

Directions-—(Q. 1-5) Relation­ship different elements is shown in the statements. Every statement has two conclusions. Select the conclusion which follows the given statement.

  1. B>OsT = L<S;Is=R

O a R R < B

  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  • Either conclusions I or II is true
  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  1. M>AsLsE = D

E > L LsD

  • Only conclusion II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Both conclusion I and II are true
  1. MaAiT = kFsH

A > H TsM

  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  1. B>0>I=L<S;IsR

B > S S > O

  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  1. G<IsAiN>T<S

G < N

Conclusion II ; A > S

  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  1. Read the following information carefully to answer the given question.

“If I get my children admitted to a school with a small student population, only then I can expect a versatile development in them.”—Said Mr. Chopra.

Which of the following can be inferred from Mr. Chopra’s statement ?

  • The student population in the one and only factor on which the all-round development of a student depends.
  • A smaller student population at school gives the children a wider scope of development.
  • The teachers at over popu­lated schools are not as qualified as the ones at low populated schools.
  • A child studying in a low- populated school has a better IQ than any other child of his age.
  • Versatile development com­pletely depends on the school curriculum and not on the home- environment.
  1. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way (based on the English alphabetical series) and hence form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ?
  • TWZX (B) PSWT
  • ILOM (D) ADGE
  • KNQO

Directions—(Q. 8 and 9) Read the following information carefully and answer the questions.

R is the brother of M and T. M is the only daughter of P. P is the only child of Q. Z is the son-in-law of Q. B is the daughter of T.

  1. Which of the following is definitely true based upon the given relationships ?
  • B is the niece of Q
  • None of the given options is true
  • T is the son of P
  • P is the wife of T
  • Q is the aunt of R
  1. Which of the following is /are required to establish that Q is the grandmother of M ?
  • No extra information is required as the relation can be established from the given infor­mation
  • MJhas only two sons
  • B is the great granddaughter of Q
  • Q has only one brother and two sislers
  • S is the father-in-law of Z

Directio: -—(Q. 10-15) Study the following information to answer the given questions.

Twelve people are sitting in two parallel rows containing six people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1 A, B, C, D, E and F are seated (but not necessarily in the same order) and all of them are facing south. In row-2 P, Q, R, S, T and U are seated (but not necessarily in the same order) and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row.

S sits third to left of T. T does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The one who faces T sits second to left of A. Only two people sit between A and F. Both D and E are immediate neighbours of F. P sits second to right of Q.

B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line.

Neither A nor D faces R.

  1. Who amongst the following sits second to the left of the person who faces T ?
  • D (B) C
  • B (D) F
  • E
  1. Which of the following is true with respect to the given infor­mation ?
  • D sits exactly between A and F
  • F faces one of the immediate neighbours of Q
  • B is an immediate neighbour of C
  • R faces E
  • None of the given options is true
  1. Which of the following groups of people represents the people sitting at extreme ends of both the rows ?
  • C, E, S, R
  • A, F, Q, S
  • E, F, Q, R
  • C,E,S,U
  • D, E, P, Q
  1. Who among the following sit second to the left of the person who faces B ?
  • T (B)    R

(C)   S                 (D)   Q

  • P
  1. Who among the following faces P?
  • A (B)    B

(C)   C                (D)   D

(E) F

  1. Which of the following is true regarding U ?
  • Both T and P are immediate neighbours of U
  • E is an immediate neighbour of the person who faces U
  • None of the given options is true
  • R sits second to right of U
  • Only two people sit between U and P

Directions—(Q. 16 and 17) The question consists of a question and two statements numbered I and II given below it. You have to decide whether the data given in the state­ments are sufficient to answer the questions. Read both the statements and choose the most appropriate option.

  1. Among friends A, B, C, D and E, each having a different weight, who is the heaviest ?
  2. D weighs more than only two people. E weighs more than A but less than B.
  3. A weighs more than C but less than E. E is not heavier than B.
  • The data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question.
  • The data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data even in both statements I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data either in statement I alone or statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question
  • The data in both statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question
  1. How is ‘stage’ coded in the given code language ? (Note : All the codes are two letter codes only)
  2. In the code language ‘stage is ready’ is coded as ‘ne sa ta’ and ‘ready to go’ is coded as ‘ja ta la’.
  3. In the code language ‘stage it today’ is coded as ‘mu sa ye’ and ‘it will today’ is coded as ‘ru mu ye’.
  • The data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data in both statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question
  • The data either in statement I alone or statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question
  • The data even in both state­ments I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the ques­tion, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question
  1. If ‘sister’ is coded as 121345 and ‘art’ is coded as ‘653’, how will you encode arrest ?

(A) 655433         (B) 655413

(C) 645413         (D) 655423

Directio —(Q. 19-23) Study the following information to answer the given question.

Eight friends A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H live on eight different floors of a building but not necessarily in the same order. The lower most floor of the building is numbered one, the one above that is numbered two and so on till the top most floor is numbered eight.

B lives on floor numbered six. Only one person lives between B and A. Only two people live between A and H. H lives below A. Both A and F live on an even numbered floor. E lives immediately above F. G lives on the floors below A but not on the lowermost floor. D lives on even numbered floor.

  1. Who lives exactly between the floor A and B ?

(A) E                   (B)    G

(C) F                   (D)   H

(E) No one

  1. If C and D interchange their places, who will live between C and H ?

(A) G                  (Bl     E

(C) F                   (D)   No one

(E) A

  1. Who lives on the lowest floor one ?
  • C
  • Cannot be determined
  • H
  • E
  • D
  1. Which of the following is true about G ?
  • Only two    people live between G and E
  • Only one person lives between H and G
  • G lives immediately below B

 

  • All the given statements are true
  • G lives on an even numbered floor
  1. Four of the following five are

alike as per the given arrangement and thus form a group. Which of the following does not belong to that group ? (A) BE (B) EC

(C) HF                (D) AH

(E) GD

  1. Statement In order to help the textile industry of City A which has been struggling for the past four to five years, an NGO financed 80% of the transporta­tion and marketing cost of ready material from the factories. It was, however, noticed in the following year that extending such help did not prove to be of much use in providing respite to these factories. Which of the following could be one of the factors leading to such a scenario even after the NGO’s interven­tion ?
  • Export from the textile factories in City A has increased from 12-06% to 12-09% in the past 5 years.
  • Textile industries in City B which grappled with same prob­lems as that of the City A were able to recover their losses after a similar intervention from the same NGO.
  • The government has recently increased checks as well as amount of fine on transport vehicles which transport textiles without a legal permit.
  • Transportation and logistics in City A has been dominated by a single player since past several years.
  • Most of the factories to which this help was extended had outdated machinery leading to low and inferior quality of the output.

Directions—(Q. 25-30) Study the following information to answer the given questions.

Seven friends, namely S, T, U, V, W, X and Y attend different hobby classes namely, Singing, Gardening, Knitting, Dancing, Cpoking, Yoga and Photography,; not necessarily in the same order, from Monday to Sunday (of the same week).

T attends classes on Tuesday. Only two people attend classes be­tween T and S. X attends classes immediately before U. W attends classes immediately after the one who attends knitting classes. Neither T nor S attends knitting classes. Only one person attends classes between the one who attends knitting classes and the one who attends photography classes. V attends gardening classes. The one who attends yoga, attends classes immediately before the one who attends singing. X does not attend yoga classes. W does not attend cooking classes.

Knitting — Sunday — Y Dancing — Saturday — W Photography — Friday — S Cooking — Thursday — U Singing — Wednesday— X Yoga —            Tuesday — T

Gardening — Monday — V

  1. On which of the following days does Y attend classes ?

(A) Sunday (B) Monday (C) Thursday (D) Friday (E) Saturday

  1. Four of the following five form a group based on given arrange­ment. Which of the following do not in group ?
  • S-Dancing
  • X-Cooking
  • T-Photography
  • V-Yoga
  • Y-Knitting
  1. Which of the following pairs represent those who attend classes on Monday and Sunday ?
  • X,W
  • V,W
  • X, Y
  • V, Y
  • Other than those given as options
  1. As per the given arrangement V is related to U in a certain way and T is related to S in the same way. To which of the following is X related to in the same way ?
  • W
  • V
  • Other than those given as options
  • T
  • Y
  1. Who amongst the following attends singing classes ?
  • S
  • X
  • -Other than those given as options
  • U
  • W
  1. Which of the following classes does U attend ?
  • Other than those given as options
  • Singing
  • Cooking
  • Yoga
  • Knitting

Directions—(Q. 31-36) Study the given information and answer the given question.

When a word and number arrangement machine is given an input line of words and numbers, it arranges them following a particular rule. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement. (All the numbers are two digit numbers).

Input : Progress 55 to 64 computerised 21 42 methods 15 soon.

Step I : 64 progress 55 to 21 42 methods 15 soon computerised.

Step II : 55 64 progress to 21 42 15 soon computerised methods.

Step III : 42 55 64 to 21 15 soon computerised methods progress.

Step IV : 21 42 55 64 to 15 computerised methods progress soon.

Step V : 15 21 42 55 64 computerised methods progress soon to.       1

Step V is the last step of the above arrangement as the intended arragement is obtained. As per the rules followed in the given steps, find out the appropriate steps for the given input.

Input : Method 98 12 of 41 eva­luation differs 30 57 further now 63.

Step I 98 method 12 of 41 eva­luation 30 57 further now 63 differs.

Step II: 63 98 method 12 of 41 30 57 further now differs evaluation.

Step III 57 63 98 method 12 of 41 30 now differs evaluation further.

Step IV : 41 57 63 98 12 of 30 now differs evaluation further method.

Step V 30 41 57 63 98 12 of differs evaluation further method now.

Step VI: 12 30 41 57 63 98 differs evaluation further method now of.