Aquaponics: A New Entrepreneur for a Fishery Graduate Student —Adita Sharma

What is Aquaponics ?

Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish production in available water) and hydroponics (growing of plants without soil by using inert medium). It allows you to produce fish and plants in the one system with a large reduction in water use. Aquaponics is the symbiotic production of vegetables and fish. Fish eat food and release metabolites into the water derived from the food. These metabolites are further metabolized by bacteria and the products of this metabolism are pumped into a plant grow bed, where they are taken-up by plants for nourish­ment. Aquaponics is suitable for environments with limited land and water, because it produces about three to six times the vegetables and uses about 1% of the fresh­water used by traditional aquaculture.

Plants need to be fertilized in order to grow more. But, when plants are put in water, there is no soil, and therefore, there is nothing to be fertilized. However, if we put fish in that same water where the plants are, we will be able to make the water dirtier than usual. This may seem confusing right now, but it is not. Namely, that so called ‘dirt’ is actually the toxic by-product that fish leave behind. With special equipment, that water is transferred and cleaned and then returned back to the fish.

Simple aquponic unit

 

Applicability of Aquaponics

Aquaponics combines two of the most productive systems in their respective fields. Recirculating aquacul­ture systems and hydroponics have experienced wide­spread expansion in the world not only for their higher yields, but also for their better use of land and water, simpler methods of pollution control, improved manage­ment of productive factors, their higher quality of pro­ducts and greater food safety. However, aquaponics can be overly complicated and expensive, and requires consis­tent access to some inputs.

Major Benefits of Aquaponic System

0 Sustainability and intensive food production system. • Two agriculture products are produced from one nitrogen source.

0 Extremely water efficient.

0 Does not require soil.

0 Does not use fertilizers or chemical pesticides.

0 Higher control on production leading to lower losses. 0 Daily tasks, harvesting and planning are labour saving and therefore can include all genders and ages.

0 Economical production of either family food pro­duction or cash crops in many locations.

0 Construction materials and information base are widely available.

0 Promoting fuel efficient and environment friendly fishing practice.

Maintenance of Fish Health and Feeding Status

Water is pumped from the fish tanks into the raceway and returns to the fish tank via a standpipe and bulkhead. Fish feeding should start out slowly and increase over two weeks to the level of about 42 g of feed per day. This is a rough estimate, as the fish determine how much they want to eat. The slow increase should allow for the growth of bacteria, which are recruited from the environment to detoxify the water. Fish are fed twice daily, once in the mid-morning when water temperatures begin to rise and once in the evening. The best way to determine feeding amounts is to feed fish the prede­termined amount and then ten minutes after feeding count the number of particles remaining. If 5-10% of the feed remains after 10 minutes, the meal size should be kept the same; if more than 10% is left over, the meal size should be decreased; if less than 5% is left over, the meal size should be increased.

 

‘ X

wmr

/ill!I;:.\ yr

Grow tray
27.78 crore

Workers registered till March 2015

Total 9.80 cr
YEAR BY YEAR
MOST ACTIVE WORKERS (in lakh)

State Active Women Reg’d Women 50            275          111

TN 90 67 130 85
MP 88 39 245 113
UP 87 24 234 57
Rajasthan 78 47 245 118
Andhra 76 40 208 101

 

How can We Start Our Own Aquaponic Unit?

We can use simple wooden boxes. Grow-bed units are shallow wooden boxes with a piece of plywood for a bottom,

two 2″x 4″ side pieces and two 2″ x 4″:end pieces. These grow- beds are quick and inexpensive to cons­truct. Each bed pro­duces 48 heads of leafy greens, such as lettuce, some vege­tables, such as mustard cabbage; require 5 weeks to grow to a pound.

To construct the box, screws are placed through the bottom once every approx. 41 cm. 2×8 stainless steel screws or 3 x 10 stainless steel screws are used. Typical raceways consisting of 8 pieces Boxes are construc- of plywood connected end to end.                                                                  ted upside down.

Many trays are attached to each other. Usually 8 pieces of plywood form a race-way. The number 8 is used because rolls of plastic are usually about 100 feet long. The greatest challenge is to ensure that all of the trays are level. They need to be level or fish water will puddle somewhere in the tray. Raceways are supported by double hollow tiles.

Plants sit in 2″ net pots supported by the white poly­styrene covers.

Grow-beds are filled with enough water to reach the bottom of the net pots, and lettuce plant roots Gravel filled raceway with plants grow down into growing in the gravel the water to take up nutrients. It is noted that this leaves about 5 cm of air space between the raft and the surface of the water, approximating well-aerated tilled soil.

India today is the second largest fish producing nation in the World. India is also a major producer of fish through aquaculture and ranks second in the World after China. Infact, fish sector contributes about 0-92% to the overall Gross Value Added (GVA) and 5-58% of the Agricultural GVA at current prices for the year 2013-14. Inland fisheries presently has a share of 64-09% in total fish production (9-58 million tonnes-MT in 2013-14), while marine fisheries share is 35-90%. Overall, this Aquaponics technique/system will be suitable for environment with limited land water in the country a dire need in 21st Century. This Aquaponics technique will be useful to develop post harvest technologies for students by the National Institute of Fisheries Post Harvest Technology and Training (NIFPHATT, Gol) Vishakhapatnam (A.P.) renamed in 2008, Central Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training (CIFNET), Kochi (Kerala) est. in 1963 etc.

‘World Fisheries Day’ was observed first time in India on November 21, 2014 during International Trade Fare, New Delhi so as to enhance fish production by National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) and implement ‘Blue Revolution’ Inland Fisheries.


Conclusion

Aquaponics is an integrated approach to efficient and sustainable intensification of agriculture that meets the needs of water scarcity initiatives. Globally, improved agricultural practices are needed to alleviate rural poverty and enhance food security. Aquaponics is residuefree and avoids the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. It is a labour-saving technique and can be inclusive of many gender and age categories. In the face of population growth, climate change and dwindling supplies of water and arable land worldwide, developing efficient and integrated agriculture techniques will support economic development.            p.oarpan

FACT SHEET

NREGA @10: Rising wages,
dwindling workforce

Govt’s flagship employment scheme completed 10 years on February 2,2016

Rs. 3,13,844.55 crore

TOTAL AMOUNT SPENT IN 10 YEARS, 71% OF IT ON WAGES,

AND REST ON ADMINISTRATIVE AND OTHER EXPENSES

1,980.01 crore

Man-days of work created in 10 years

ACTIVE WORKERS

(Worked at least once in the last two years)

Others 5.88 cr

tl –

r9%Land development _ 5% Other 12% Land development 4% Other r works
works
\ 24% Rural 15%

Renovation

I
WHAT THEY DID

 

WHERE THE Rs. 3 lakh cr WENT

 

_ 9% Drought proofing

 

 

-16% Water conservation

………. ..■tPMjMwt

What

2015-16* 2014-15 2013-14 2012-13
Wage/day/person 151.96 143.91 132.7 121.41
Total expenditure 34,360 cr 36,025 cr 38,553 cr 39,778 cr
1 WORK FELL
Man-days of work 160 166 220 230
Households that worked 3.99 cr 4.14 cr 4.79 cr 4.99 cr
Individuals that worked 5.81 cr 6.22 cr 7.39 cr 7.97 cr
THE 100 DAYS/YEAR BENCHMARK
Households got 100 days (in lakh) 20.85 24.93 46.59 51.73
Average days per household 40.13 40.17 45.97 46.2
1 *2015-16 figures until date; tables cover two UPA years, two NDA years
THE STATES (UTs excluded from tables)

 

 

 

WORKS COMPLETED

TOP 5                           BOTTOM 5

Haryana 91% Arunachal 7%
Mizoram 85% Manipur 40%
Tripura 84% Odisha 53%
Himachal 82% Bengal 54%
MP 82% Maharashtra 58%

 

 

Solved Paper NABARD ASSISTANT MANAGER (GRADE A & B) EXAMINATION, 2015 (Held on 26-10-2014) Reasoning

Directions-—(Q. 1-5) Relation­ship different elements is shown in the statements. Every statement has two conclusions. Select the conclusion which follows the given statement.

  1. B>OsT = L<S;Is=R

O a R R < B

  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  • Either conclusions I or II is true
  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  1. M>AsLsE = D

E > L LsD

  • Only conclusion II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Both conclusion I and II are true
  1. MaAiT = kFsH

A > H TsM

  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  1. B>0>I=L<S;IsR

B > S S > O

  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  1. G<IsAiN>T<S

G < N

Conclusion II ; A > S

  • Either conclusion I or II is true
  • Only conclusion I is true
  • Only conclusion II is true
  • Both conclusions I and II are true
  • Neither conclusion I nor II is true
  1. Read the following information carefully to answer the given question.

“If I get my children admitted to a school with a small student population, only then I can expect a versatile development in them.”—Said Mr. Chopra.

Which of the following can be inferred from Mr. Chopra’s statement ?

  • The student population in the one and only factor on which the all-round development of a student depends.
  • A smaller student population at school gives the children a wider scope of development.
  • The teachers at over popu­lated schools are not as qualified as the ones at low populated schools.
  • A child studying in a low- populated school has a better IQ than any other child of his age.
  • Versatile development com­pletely depends on the school curriculum and not on the home- environment.
  1. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way (based on the English alphabetical series) and hence form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group ?
  • TWZX (B) PSWT
  • ILOM (D) ADGE
  • KNQO

Directions—(Q. 8 and 9) Read the following information carefully and answer the questions.

R is the brother of M and T. M is the only daughter of P. P is the only child of Q. Z is the son-in-law of Q. B is the daughter of T.

  1. Which of the following is definitely true based upon the given relationships ?
  • B is the niece of Q
  • None of the given options is true
  • T is the son of P
  • P is the wife of T
  • Q is the aunt of R
  1. Which of the following is /are required to establish that Q is the grandmother of M ?
  • No extra information is required as the relation can be established from the given infor­mation
  • MJhas only two sons
  • B is the great granddaughter of Q
  • Q has only one brother and two sislers
  • S is the father-in-law of Z

Directio: -—(Q. 10-15) Study the following information to answer the given questions.

Twelve people are sitting in two parallel rows containing six people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1 A, B, C, D, E and F are seated (but not necessarily in the same order) and all of them are facing south. In row-2 P, Q, R, S, T and U are seated (but not necessarily in the same order) and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row.

S sits third to left of T. T does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The one who faces T sits second to left of A. Only two people sit between A and F. Both D and E are immediate neighbours of F. P sits second to right of Q.

B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line.

Neither A nor D faces R.

  1. Who amongst the following sits second to the left of the person who faces T ?
  • D (B) C
  • B (D) F
  • E
  1. Which of the following is true with respect to the given infor­mation ?
  • D sits exactly between A and F
  • F faces one of the immediate neighbours of Q
  • B is an immediate neighbour of C
  • R faces E
  • None of the given options is true
  1. Which of the following groups of people represents the people sitting at extreme ends of both the rows ?
  • C, E, S, R
  • A, F, Q, S
  • E, F, Q, R
  • C,E,S,U
  • D, E, P, Q
  1. Who among the following sit second to the left of the person who faces B ?
  • T (B)    R

(C)   S                 (D)   Q

  • P
  1. Who among the following faces P?
  • A (B)    B

(C)   C                (D)   D

(E) F

  1. Which of the following is true regarding U ?
  • Both T and P are immediate neighbours of U
  • E is an immediate neighbour of the person who faces U
  • None of the given options is true
  • R sits second to right of U
  • Only two people sit between U and P

Directions—(Q. 16 and 17) The question consists of a question and two statements numbered I and II given below it. You have to decide whether the data given in the state­ments are sufficient to answer the questions. Read both the statements and choose the most appropriate option.

  1. Among friends A, B, C, D and E, each having a different weight, who is the heaviest ?
  2. D weighs more than only two people. E weighs more than A but less than B.
  3. A weighs more than C but less than E. E is not heavier than B.
  • The data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question.
  • The data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data even in both statements I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data either in statement I alone or statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question
  • The data in both statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question
  1. How is ‘stage’ coded in the given code language ? (Note : All the codes are two letter codes only)
  2. In the code language ‘stage is ready’ is coded as ‘ne sa ta’ and ‘ready to go’ is coded as ‘ja ta la’.
  3. In the code language ‘stage it today’ is coded as ‘mu sa ye’ and ‘it will today’ is coded as ‘ru mu ye’.
  • The data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data in both statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question
  • The data either in statement I alone or statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question
  • The data even in both state­ments I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question
  • The data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the ques­tion, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question
  1. If ‘sister’ is coded as 121345 and ‘art’ is coded as ‘653’, how will you encode arrest ?

(A) 655433         (B) 655413

(C) 645413         (D) 655423

Directio —(Q. 19-23) Study the following information to answer the given question.

Eight friends A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H live on eight different floors of a building but not necessarily in the same order. The lower most floor of the building is numbered one, the one above that is numbered two and so on till the top most floor is numbered eight.

B lives on floor numbered six. Only one person lives between B and A. Only two people live between A and H. H lives below A. Both A and F live on an even numbered floor. E lives immediately above F. G lives on the floors below A but not on the lowermost floor. D lives on even numbered floor.

  1. Who lives exactly between the floor A and B ?

(A) E                   (B)    G

(C) F                   (D)   H

(E) No one

  1. If C and D interchange their places, who will live between C and H ?

(A) G                  (Bl     E

(C) F                   (D)   No one

(E) A

  1. Who lives on the lowest floor one ?
  • C
  • Cannot be determined
  • H
  • E
  • D
  1. Which of the following is true about G ?
  • Only two    people live between G and E
  • Only one person lives between H and G
  • G lives immediately below B

 

  • All the given statements are true
  • G lives on an even numbered floor
  1. Four of the following five are

alike as per the given arrangement and thus form a group. Which of the following does not belong to that group ? (A) BE (B) EC

(C) HF                (D) AH

(E) GD

  1. Statement In order to help the textile industry of City A which has been struggling for the past four to five years, an NGO financed 80% of the transporta­tion and marketing cost of ready material from the factories. It was, however, noticed in the following year that extending such help did not prove to be of much use in providing respite to these factories. Which of the following could be one of the factors leading to such a scenario even after the NGO’s interven­tion ?
  • Export from the textile factories in City A has increased from 12-06% to 12-09% in the past 5 years.
  • Textile industries in City B which grappled with same prob­lems as that of the City A were able to recover their losses after a similar intervention from the same NGO.
  • The government has recently increased checks as well as amount of fine on transport vehicles which transport textiles without a legal permit.
  • Transportation and logistics in City A has been dominated by a single player since past several years.
  • Most of the factories to which this help was extended had outdated machinery leading to low and inferior quality of the output.

Directions—(Q. 25-30) Study the following information to answer the given questions.

Seven friends, namely S, T, U, V, W, X and Y attend different hobby classes namely, Singing, Gardening, Knitting, Dancing, Cpoking, Yoga and Photography,; not necessarily in the same order, from Monday to Sunday (of the same week).

T attends classes on Tuesday. Only two people attend classes be­tween T and S. X attends classes immediately before U. W attends classes immediately after the one who attends knitting classes. Neither T nor S attends knitting classes. Only one person attends classes between the one who attends knitting classes and the one who attends photography classes. V attends gardening classes. The one who attends yoga, attends classes immediately before the one who attends singing. X does not attend yoga classes. W does not attend cooking classes.

Knitting — Sunday — Y Dancing — Saturday — W Photography — Friday — S Cooking — Thursday — U Singing — Wednesday— X Yoga —            Tuesday — T

Gardening — Monday — V

  1. On which of the following days does Y attend classes ?

(A) Sunday (B) Monday (C) Thursday (D) Friday (E) Saturday

  1. Four of the following five form a group based on given arrange­ment. Which of the following do not in group ?
  • S-Dancing
  • X-Cooking
  • T-Photography
  • V-Yoga
  • Y-Knitting
  1. Which of the following pairs represent those who attend classes on Monday and Sunday ?
  • X,W
  • V,W
  • X, Y
  • V, Y
  • Other than those given as options
  1. As per the given arrangement V is related to U in a certain way and T is related to S in the same way. To which of the following is X related to in the same way ?
  • W
  • V
  • Other than those given as options
  • T
  • Y
  1. Who amongst the following attends singing classes ?
  • S
  • X
  • -Other than those given as options
  • U
  • W
  1. Which of the following classes does U attend ?
  • Other than those given as options
  • Singing
  • Cooking
  • Yoga
  • Knitting

Directions—(Q. 31-36) Study the given information and answer the given question.

When a word and number arrangement machine is given an input line of words and numbers, it arranges them following a particular rule. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement. (All the numbers are two digit numbers).

Input : Progress 55 to 64 computerised 21 42 methods 15 soon.

Step I : 64 progress 55 to 21 42 methods 15 soon computerised.

Step II : 55 64 progress to 21 42 15 soon computerised methods.

Step III : 42 55 64 to 21 15 soon computerised methods progress.

Step IV : 21 42 55 64 to 15 computerised methods progress soon.

Step V : 15 21 42 55 64 computerised methods progress soon to.       1

Step V is the last step of the above arrangement as the intended arragement is obtained. As per the rules followed in the given steps, find out the appropriate steps for the given input.

Input : Method 98 12 of 41 eva­luation differs 30 57 further now 63.

Step I 98 method 12 of 41 eva­luation 30 57 further now 63 differs.

Step II: 63 98 method 12 of 41 30 57 further now differs evaluation.

Step III 57 63 98 method 12 of 41 30 now differs evaluation further.

Step IV : 41 57 63 98 12 of 30 now differs evaluation further method.

Step V 30 41 57 63 98 12 of differs evaluation further method now.

Step VI: 12 30 41 57 63 98 differs evaluation further method now of.